Last updated on July 20th, 2021
41. Molecular hydrogen can react with many elements and compounds at elevated temperatures. For example, certain radiations and sparks can produce an explosive reaction when hydrogen and chlorine are mixed and yield hydrogen chloride.
42. The strongest hydrogen bonds involve the highly electronegative atoms of oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine. Higher boiling points provide the thermal energy required to break up hydrogen bonds to allow vaporization.
43. Hydrogen bonding is important in the field of biology. It has a huge role in determining the configurations of molecules. The strongest hydrogen bonds are in the small highly electronegative atoms of fluorine, nitrogen and oxygen.
44. The hydrogen bomb’s explosion involves the collision and fusion of light nuclei, including deuterium (H2) and tritium (H3). If a control for the fusion processes can be found, the raw material for a virtually unlimited supply of energy is available in the deuterium content of water.
45. Such fusion reactions are the source of solar energy from the sun.
Production and Applications of Hydrogen
46. The most important industrial method of hydrogen production is the catalytic steam-hydrocarbon process. This is an endothermic (heat absorbing) process. Production in the U.S. alone is approximately three billion cubic feet annually.
47. The noncatalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbon under raised pressure is another production process. It is an exothermic (heat producing) process. Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of natural gas.
48. Hydrogen’s principal industrial application is in the manufacturing of ammonia, chiefly for the fertilizer market.
49. The second application is for fossil fuel processing.
50. Another application is the catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds. Unsaturated animal and vegetable oils and fats are hydrogenated to make margarine and vegetable shortening.
51. Hydrogen has been used as a primary rocket fuel as the preferred propellant for space vehicles.
52. A hydrogen atmosphere is used in the annealing of metals, the pouring of special castings, the cooling of large electric motors and in the manufacturing of magnesium.
53. Liquid hydrogen is used in labs to produce low temperatures. It is also used in cryogenic research including superconductivity studies.[12,13]
54. The deuterium isotope is used in nuclear fission applications and in nuclear fusion reactions.
55. Deuterium oxide is used in nuclear reactors as a moderator to slow down neutrons without absorbing them.
56. Research is developing thermochemical methods to produce hydrogen from water and solar energy.
57. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is using hydrogen gas to store great amounts of electrical power.
Hydrogen – Quick facts and information
|Origin of the name||From the Greek words hudôr, meaning water and gennan, meaning to generate|
|Common use||1. Hydrogenation of fats and oils|
2. Methanol production
3. Rocket fuel
5. Hydrochloric acid
6. Reducing metallic ores
7. Filling balloons
2. exceptionally clean
3. lighter than air
6. safe to produce, store and transport
7. easy to store in large amounts
8. easily produced from many different sources
|Atomic mass||1.00794 atomic mass units (amu)|
|Discovered by||Henry Cavendish and Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier|
|Discovery date||1766 in England and in France|
|Melting point||-259.14° C|
|Boiling point||-252.87° C|
|Number of Protons||1|
|Number of Neutrons||0|
|Number of Electrons||1|
|Molecular weight||2.016 g/mol|
|Isotopes||H1, H2, H3|
|Member of group||1|
|Density||0.0899*10 -3 g.cm -3 at 20 °C|
|Electron configuration||Hydrogen only has one electron and therefore has a configuration of 1s1.|
|Heat of Vaporization||0.90 kJ/mol at -252.87 deg C|
|Phase at room temperature||gas|
|Percentage in Crust||0.15%|
|Table data sources||1. https://hobart.k12.in.us/ksms/PeriodicTable/hydrogen.htm|
|Table last updated||July 27, 2018|