Mongolia Facts: 66 Key Facts About Mongolia

Last updated on July 8th, 2017 at 10:45 am

Mongolia is a country in East Asia. The country is also famous for Genghis Khan, a one of a kind ruler that changed the course of history for the country. With these 66 facts about Mongolia, let’s learn more about its history, culture & tradition, economy, geography, people and lots more…

Geographical facts about Mongolia

1. Mongolia is a landlocked, unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

2. Bogd Khan Ull National Park (1783), the oldest national park in the world, is in Mongolia. It predates the Yellowstone by approximately 100 years.

3. Present day Mongolia was referred to as “Outer Mongolia.” Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region in The People’s Republic of China, located in the north of the country. Inner Mongolia contains over 12% of China’s land area and is the third largest subdivision of China.

4. Mongolia lies between China to the South and Russia to the North. It is actually bordered on the three sides (South, East, and West) by China. Kazakhstan is also near to Mongolia at only a distance of 36.76 km.

Map of Mongolia

5. With a population of around 3 million people, Mongolia, by area is the 18th largest country in the world.

6. Behind Kazakhstan, Mongolia is the world’s second largest landlocked country, followed by Chad (3rd), Niger (4th), Mali (5th), Ethiopia (6th), Bolivia (7th), Zambia (8th), Afghanistan (9th) and Central African Republic (10th largest landlocked country in the world).

7. With an average temperature of minus 1.3 degree Celsius, Mongolia’s capital Ulaanbaatar (“Red Hero”) is the world’s chilliest capital city. The second coldest capital city in the world is Astana in Kazakhstan with average annual temperature of 3.5 degree celsius.

8. Mongolia is the world’s most sparsely populated country. It has a land area of 1.6 million km and a population of 3 million.

9. With an average altitude of 1580 m above sea level, Mongolia is one of the highest countries in the world.

10. The highest point of the country is “The Khuiten peak” at 4374 m on the west side of the country along the border with China. It is known as “Youyi Feng” in Chinese and “Nairamdal Uul” in Mongolian. The peak was first ascended in 1963 by Mongolian mountaineers sponsored by the government. It was known as “Friendship Peak” in the past.

11. The lowest point is The Hoh Nurr lake at 560 m. See the list of highest and lowest points of countries here. 

12. The Potanin Glacier, which is 14 km long, is the longest glacier in Mongolia.

13. Almost 3/4th of Mongolia’s land area is pastureland, which supports the lives of its grazing livestock.

14. Mongolia is prone to earthquakes some of whom are severe in nature. However, due to low population density, the earthquakes do not cause any major harm.

15. Mongolia has three mountain chains: the Khangai Mountains, the Khentii Mountains and the Mongolian Altai Mountains (the highest of the three ranges).

16. Mongolia does not have direct contact with any ocean. In fact, the nearest ocean to the country is the Pacific Ocean. However, Mongolia has several lakes that collectively cover an area of 16,003 kilometer square.

17. Ulaan Bataar, the capital city of Mongolia used to move three times a year (being a nomadic city). Mongolia became a member of the World Trade Organization in 1997.

18. Genghis Khan, born in 1162, formed the Mongol Empire in 1206. The Mongol Empire is also the largest contiguous empire in world history. The empire covered 22% of the Earth’s total land area. However, after the demise of Genghis Khan, the empire was divided into four kingdoms.

Flag of Mongolia

flag of Mongolia
Flag of Mongolia: blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity. Image via CIA

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