Last updated on February 7th, 2022
A country is considered landlocked when it is surrounded on all sides by one or more other countries and therefore has no immediate coastline providing access to the oceans or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.
There are 44 landlocked countries in the world and 5 partially recognized landlocked states.
There are two continents without any landlocked nations: North America and the island of Australia.
Below we have listed the landlocked countries in the world sorted according to the continent they are located in.
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List of 44 landlocked countries in the World
|Serial||Country Name||Surrounding countries||Number of Surrounding Countries|
|Landlocked countries in Africa|
|2.||Malawi||Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique||3|
|3.||Burundi||Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo||3|
|4.||Eswatini||Mozambique and South Africa||2|
|5.||Botswana||Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa||4|
|6.||Zimbabwe||South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique||4|
|7.||Rwanda||Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo||4|
|8.||Uganda||Kenya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania||5|
|9.||Burkina Faso||Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast||6|
|10.||Chad||Libya, Niger, Sudan, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Cameroon||6|
|11.||Central African Republic||Chad, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan||6|
|12.||South Sudan||Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic||6|
|13.||Ethiopia||Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan||6|
|14.||Niger||Libya, Chad, Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Algeria||7|
|15.||Mali||Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania||7|
|16.||Zambia||Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola||8|
|Landlocked countries in Europe|
|17.||Austria||Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland||8|
|18.||Serbia||Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania||8|
|19.||Slovakia||Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary||5|
|20.||Hungary||Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine||7|
|21.||Switzerland||France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, Italy||5|
|22.||Czech Republic||Austria, Germany, Poland, Slovakia||4|
|23.||North Macedonia||Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Kosovo||5|
|24.||Belarus||Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia||5|
|26.||Luxembourg||Belgium, Germany, France||3|
|28.||Liechtenstein||Switzerland and Austria||2|
(the world's smallest landlocked country)
|Landlocked countries in Asia|
|31.||Afghanistan||Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan and India||7|
(the world's largest landlocked country)
|China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan||5|
|33.||Azerbaijan||Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Turkey||5|
|34.||Uzbekistan||Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan||5|
|35.||Tajikistan||Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China||4|
|36.||Kyrgyzstan||China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan||4|
|37.||Armenia||Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Artsakh||5|
|38.||Laos||Myanmar, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand||5|
|39.||Turkmenistan||Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran||4|
|Landlocked countries in South America|
|43.||Bolivia||Peru, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay||5|
|44.||Paraguay||Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia||3|
List of 5 partially recognized landlocked states
|Serial||State name||Surrounding countries||Number of Surrounding Countries|
|1.||Kosovo||Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Albania||4|
|2.||Transnistria||Moldova and Ukraine||2|
|3.||West Bank||Jordan and Israel||2|
|4.||Artsakh||Armenia and Azerbaijan||2|
|5.||South Ossetia||Georgia and Russia||2|
Facts About Landlocked Countries
1. Landlocked countries do not have to worry about protecting their coastlines. They do not have to patrol the surrounding waters or police their ports since invasion from the sea or ocean is not likely to happen – at least, not directly. They also do not need to allocate part of their national budget on naval protection.
2. Historically, landlocked countries do not enjoy the same speed of development and progress as countries that have coastlines. This is usually because landlocked countries do not have as much access to alternative trading routes other than by land or air. This is usually the case with landlocked countries located in economically poor geographic regions.
3. One of the major disadvantages of a landlocked country is that it does not have access to resources and opportunities such as fishing, cargo shipping, sea farming, and offshore work. These industries contribute millions in revenue even for smaller countries and offer a wide variety of employment and business opportunities.
4. Another key disadvantage of landlocked countries is that they cannot participate directly in maritime trade. Maritime trade provides countries with access to foreign goods and services which may help provide supplies of materials that are either unavailable locally or too expensive to produce. On the upside, landlocked countries do not have to contend with the barrage of cheap, mass-produced goods that can be imported from overseas.
5. The lack of access to maritime resources also prevents landlocked countries a cheaper means to export their own goods and products. This is a lost opportunity for these countries to earn and also for their citizens to find employment domestically. Most jobs in these countries are limited to whatever is available as a result of their existing economy. Attempts to expand can also be limited due to the limitations presented by their location and geography.
6. Since marine shipping is a cheap means to transport large and bulky goods, landlocked countries will have to spend more to export or transfer their locally produced goods to another country, particularly if that country is a good distance away. This also prevents these countries from easily and conveniently participating in foreign trade and establishing useful foreign contacts.
7. Landlocked countries also typically have lower populations, which could translate to fewer schools, fewer public facilities, less demand for homes and accommodations. It is also likely that these countries have fewer care facilities and less access to public transport. As a result, the cost of public transportation is likely higher in their respective areas.
8. Interestingly, there are landlocked countries in Europe and Africa that enjoy better economic growth compared to their coastline counterparts. It seems that progressive landlocked countries enjoy support from friendly neighbors, building strong economic bonds with them. They are also politically stable and are relatively peaceful. These factors help promote their viability as progressive countries, which explains their wealth.