Landlocked Countries in the World Listed

Last updated on February 7th, 2022

A country is considered landlocked when it is surrounded on all sides by one or more other countries and therefore has no immediate coastline providing access to the oceans or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins

There are 44 landlocked countries in the world and 5 partially recognized landlocked states.

There are two continents without any landlocked nations: North America and the island of Australia.

Below we have listed the landlocked countries in the world sorted according to the continent they are located in.

Did you know?

1. The city-state of Vatican City (located entirely within the borders of Rome) is the world’s smallest landlocked country.
2. Kazakhstan is the world’s largest landlocked country.
3. Uzbekistan and Liechtenstein are double-landlocked. They are the only two nations that are completely surrounded by other landlocked countries. This means that residents of double landlocked countries need to cross two country’s borders to reach a coastline.
4. The largest landlocked country by population is Ethiopia. 
Chad paper flag pin on a map. landlocked countries in the world
Chad paper flag pin on a map. Photo © Sjankauskas |

List of 44 landlocked countries in the World

Serial Country NameSurrounding countriesNumber of Surrounding Countries
Landlocked countries in Africa
1.LesothoSouth Africa1
2.MalawiZambia, Tanzania, Mozambique3
3.BurundiRwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo3
4.EswatiniMozambique and South Africa2
5.BotswanaNamibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa4
6.ZimbabweSouth Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique4
7.RwandaUganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo4
8.UgandaKenya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania
9.Burkina FasoMali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast6
10.ChadLibya, Niger, Sudan, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Cameroon6
11.Central African RepublicChad, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan6
12.South SudanSudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic6
13.EthiopiaDjibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan6
14.NigerLibya, Chad, Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Algeria7
15.MaliAlgeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania7
16.ZambiaDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola8
Landlocked countries in Europe
17.AustriaGermany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland8
18.SerbiaHungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania8
19.SlovakiaAustria, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary
20.HungaryAustria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine7
21.SwitzerlandFrance, Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, Italy5
22.Czech RepublicAustria, Germany, Poland, Slovakia4
23.North MacedoniaSerbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Kosovo5
24.BelarusPoland, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia5
25.MoldovaRomania, Ukraine2
26.LuxembourgBelgium, Germany, France3
27.AndorraFrance, Spain2
28.LiechtensteinSwitzerland and Austria2
29.San MarinoItaly1
30.Vatican City
(the world's smallest landlocked country)
Landlocked countries in Asia
31.AfghanistanIran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan and India
(the world's largest landlocked country)
China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan5
33.AzerbaijanRussia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Turkey5
34.UzbekistanKazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan5
35.TajikistanAfghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China4
36.KyrgyzstanChina, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan4
37.ArmeniaIran, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Artsakh5
38.LaosMyanmar, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand5
39.TurkmenistanKazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran4
40.MongoliaChina, Russia2
41.BhutanIndia, China2
42.NepalChina, India
Landlocked countries in South America
43.BoliviaPeru, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay5
44.ParaguayArgentina, Brazil, Bolivia3

List of 5 partially recognized landlocked states

SerialState nameSurrounding countriesNumber of Surrounding Countries
1.KosovoMontenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Albania4
2.TransnistriaMoldova and Ukraine2
3.West BankJordan and Israel2
4.ArtsakhArmenia and Azerbaijan2
5.South OssetiaGeorgia and Russia2

World Map


Facts About Landlocked Countries

1. Landlocked countries do not have to worry about protecting their coastlines. They do not have to patrol the surrounding waters or police their ports since invasion from the sea or ocean is not likely to happen – at least, not directly. They also do not need to allocate part of their national budget on naval protection.

2. Historically, landlocked countries do not enjoy the same speed of development and progress as countries that have coastlines. This is usually because landlocked countries do not have as much access to alternative trading routes other than by land or air. This is usually the case with landlocked countries located in economically poor geographic regions.

3. One of the major disadvantages of a landlocked country is that it does not have access to resources and opportunities such as fishing, cargo shipping, sea farming, and offshore work. These industries contribute millions in revenue even for smaller countries and offer a wide variety of employment and business opportunities.

4. Another key disadvantage of landlocked countries is that they cannot participate directly in maritime trade. Maritime trade provides countries with access to foreign goods and services which may help provide supplies of materials that are either unavailable locally or too expensive to produce. On the upside, landlocked countries do not have to contend with the barrage of cheap, mass-produced goods that can be imported from overseas.

5. The lack of access to maritime resources also prevents landlocked countries a cheaper means to export their own goods and products. This is a lost opportunity for these countries to earn and also for their citizens to find employment domestically. Most jobs in these countries are limited to whatever is available as a result of their existing economy. Attempts to expand can also be limited due to the limitations presented by their location and geography.

6. Since marine shipping is a cheap means to transport large and bulky goods, landlocked countries will have to spend more to export or transfer their locally produced goods to another country, particularly if that country is a good distance away. This also prevents these countries from easily and conveniently participating in foreign trade and establishing useful foreign contacts.

7. Landlocked countries also typically have lower populations, which could translate to fewer schools, fewer public facilities, less demand for homes and accommodations. It is also likely that these countries have fewer care facilities and less access to public transport. As a result, the cost of public transportation is likely higher in their respective areas.

8. Interestingly, there are landlocked countries in Europe and Africa that enjoy better economic growth compared to their coastline counterparts. It seems that progressive landlocked countries enjoy support from friendly neighbors, building strong economic bonds with them. They are also politically stable and are relatively peaceful. These factors help promote their viability as progressive countries, which explains their wealth.